Upcoming Events

Christmas Party

Dec 07, 2023 from 06:00 PM

Johanna-Mestorf-Straße 2-6, R. 14, 24118 Kiel, Germany

Joint Christmas Party of ROOTS and CRC 1266

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Archäologisches Kolloquium: "Archaeology of the Flea Market: Dynamics between humans, space, and things within the total context."

Dec 11, 2023 from 06:30 PM to 08:30 PM

Hybride Veranstaltung (Johanna-Mestorf-Straße 2-6, Johanna-Mestorf-Hörsaal/Online)

Dr. Jakub Sawicki, Mgr. Jan Hasil, Ph.D. (Prague)Archaeology of the Flea Market: Dynamics between humans, space, and things within the total context.

 

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Social Inequality Forum: “Principles of Inequality in 5th millennium calBC burial sites of the south-eastern European Copper Age”

Dec 12, 2023 from 10:00 AM

Room 123, Leibnizstr. 3

Sven Brummack (Freie Universität Berlin) : “Principles of Inequality in 5th millennium calBC burial sites of the south-eastern European Copper Age”

SvenKrummack

Keywords: Burials, Copper Age, Inequality, Late Neolithic, Social Archaeology

How funerary assemblages inform our understanding of Inequality depends - among other things - on the presumptions we attribute to Inequality in the mortuary domain. If we assume that funerary assemblages are proxies for the Inequality within this specific social subfield, then they may provide insights into communally shared conceptions expressed through this domain and ultimately, help to constrain our social interpretations. It is no surprise then, that a majority of studies employed discrete methods utilizing the archaeological record´s ability to provide evidence for patterns of differentiation, such as variances in burial practices or architectural forms. In this context, south-eastern European Late Neolithic and Chalcolithic burial sites are of considerable interest for the discussion. In particular, a small fraction of metal rich and elaborate chalcolithic burials from the mid-5th mill. calBC Varna-I site have been drawn upon to form thought-provoking social interpretations regarding the state of Inequality in the Copper Age (RENFREW 1986, LICHARDUS 1988, DEMOULE 2007, BARTELHEIM/ KRAUß 2012, CHAPMAN 2013) and their respective anti-positions (WHITTLE 1996, BAILEY 2000, KIENLIN 2008). More recently, quantitative methods derived from Economic Sciences, such as Lorenz-curves and Gini-indices have been included to expose finely graduated differences in relative concentration of funerary assemblages (SCHULTING 1995, PORČIĆ 2012, WINDLER et al. 2012, JANßEN 2015, GROSSMAN 2021). Because the Lorenz-curve in its essence is a cumulative graph (the Gini-coefficient is a function derived from it), it naturally relates to the cumulative character of burial sites. These, too, cannot be considered as mere cross-sections of prehistoric communities at one specific point in time, but rather, are the often imperfect and taphonomically transformed outcomes of essentially cumulative practices, which performed inhumations and symbolic depositions over a protracted time period framed by a specific social context.
 
Inequality axioms are deeply rooted in frameworks developed by Economic Sciences. While relative concentration measures do not depend upon complete samples, it is understood that the information improves with enhanced data resolution as well as deeper understanding of the data structure. Differences in source quality compound to the complexity of the problem at hand. Yet, up until recently, information from relative Inequality of South-Eastern European burial sites within the period ca. 4800‒3800 calBC was limited to case studies (i.e. Gomolava: PORČIĆ 2012, 2019 and Durankulak: WINDLER et al. 2012). Considering their limited scope, Inequality could not be characterized in general and had to be discussed case by case, permitting only cautionary observations directed to the general. On the other hand, Inequality studies from the North-American school approached the topic from a diametrically opposite end of the source spectrum by applying a decidedly macro-level, global perspective with the intent to identify continental differences and temporal trends in longue-durée without taking into account regional variances (KOHLER et al. 2017; FOCCHESATO et al. 2019; BOGAARD et al. 2019). Therefrom, the concept of increasing Inequality has been cast and eventually, became somewhat of a generalized paradigm in the social discussion since (SCHEIDEL 2018). While these macro-level studies provide valuable insights into global trends, they also obscure important nuances and differences present within each region. Problems arise from the proxies employed and the collapse of data from different social fields (i.e. mortuary domain and house size) into one value. Finally, the macro-level orientation fails to account for communities or even smaller social subgroups, which may have their own different priorities and value systems, driving their perception of Inequality in the mortuary domain. Thus, requiring importance directed to the specificity, constraints, and the social context of the sites.

This field of research is still new and to assess the limits and prospects of relative Inequality research within Archaeology would require to explore the variances encountered. Standardization, trend and regional scope represent complex relations that correlate with different outcomes. Therefore, the missing level between case study and macro-level research has been utilized for this research. Funerary assemblages from 60 south-eastern European burial site-units conforming to five time-domains, ca. 5000‒3800 calBC have been studied and demonstrate convincingly that Inequality in the mortuary domain is not a universal phenomenon but possesses different degrees of conformity and autonomy. Particularly strict expressions with markedly low variances of Inequality have been recorded for KGK-VI cemeteries of north-eastern Bulgaria and the Lower Danube. Low to moderate Inequality from Kodžadermen sites contrast sharply with very high Inequalities recorded for contemporary Gumelniţa sites located only a short distance further to the north. These also correspond to different choices in selection and location of objects within the burial pit. The high degree of conformity is an indication of the existence of effective social institutions governing their reproduction in these two regions. In the eastern Carpathian Basin, on the other hand, a noticeably larger heterogeneity between individual sites was recognized. Furthermore, Inequality in the mortuary domain appears to show a tendency of reduction in grand scale across south-eastern Europe during the transition from the Late Neolithic to the Copper Age, which bears a counter notion to the paradigm that Inequality is a phenomenon that generally increases. More precisely, the regions studied here exhibit vastly different characteristics in terms of trend direction and rate of change with only one region exhibiting a dynamically increasing Inequality while other regions show either a static or, more frequently, a decrease in mortuary Inequality. Understanding of the dynamics of Inequality through the identification of several trend reversal points helps expanding the concept to also acknowledge the existence of breaks, and fluctuations. Pronounced regional variance in the outcomes of mortuary Inequality underlines how necessary it is to go into the regions and to fundamentally align research across multiple fields to account for Inequality in the socially constructed mortuary domain. Last but not least, an outlook is provided how to develop methods to understand and include Inequality in the social space within the frame of social practice.

 

Tim Kerig

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ROOTS Seminar Series with N. Müller Scheeßel, V. Arponen, S. Philips et al.

Dec 12, 2023 from 12:15 PM to 01:15 PM

OS80a - conference room

ROOTS Seminar Series with N. Müller Scheeßel, V. Arponen, S. Philips et al. on "Child mobility". 

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Palaeoecological Colloquium (POEC)

Dec 21, 2023 from 02:15 PM to 03:45 PM

Leibnizstraße 3, R. 123

Magdalena Wieckowska-Lüth: "Synthesis of the Duvensee palaeodata on Mesolithic human impact on the vegetation"

Wiebke Kirleis

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Biweekly Colloquia: "The Linearization and Historicization of Temporality and the Deification of the Dead"

Jan 08, 2024 from 04:15 PM to 05:45 PM

Olshausenstraße 40, R. 13

Koji Mizoguchi - Kyushu University

 

"The Linearization and Historicization of Temporality and the Deification of the Dead"
This paper contends that the linearization and historicization of temporality are intrinsically linked to the deification of deceased individuals, phenomena notably prevalent during the state formation process. The term 'historicization' in this context implies the perception that events preceding a given moment (Time t-1) exert causal influence on subsequent events (Time t). In contrast to the cyclical perception of time, where world events are seen as either continuations or disruptions of an atemporal 'norm,' historicization posits that these events are the results of contingent occurrences, encompassing both natural and human/social factors.

As societies grew in scale and complexity, instances of unmet expectations arising from individual or communal actions became increasingly frequent. These unfulfilled outcomes demanded explanations rooted in what occurred before the event, thereby reinforcing a sense of historical contingency and the imperative to reference and commemorate the past. Simultaneously, the need to attribute these causes to otherworldly or transcendental forces emerged, leading to the deification of those who guided communities and made communal decisions.

This paper examines the coalescence of linear time marking and the deification of the deceased, notably observed during the transition from complex-chiefdoms to early-inchoate state formations within Japan and other regions. It offers a theoretical model of this process and provides concrete supporting evidence, primarily drawn from Japanese historical contexts.

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PhD Teaching

Jan 09, 2024 from 02:00 PM to 04:00 PM

Leibnizstraße 3, R. 123

organization: Anna-Theres Anderson and Henriette Brandt

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ROOTS Retreat with advisory board

Jan 11, 2024 to Jan 12, 2024

Maritim Hotel Bellevue Kiel, Bismarckallee 2, 24105 Kiel

ROOTS Retreat with advisory board.*
The ROOTS and Young Academy plenary meeting will take place during the ROOTS Retreat.

*Internal meeting

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Archäologisches Kolloquium: "What wood can tell: wood exploitation in the Neolithic"

Jan 15, 2024 from 06:30 PM to 08:30 PM

Hybride Veranstaltung (Johanna-Mestorf-Straße 2-6, Johanna-Mestorf-Hörsaal/Online)

Dr. Welmoed Out (Moesgaard Museum Højbjerg, Denmark)What wood can tell: wood exploitation in the Neolithic

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Social Inequality Forum: “What have the Romans ever done for ... equal economic opportunities?”

Jan 16, 2024 from 10:00 AM

Leibnizstraße 3, R. 123

Katharina Zerzeropulos (ROOTS of Inequalities, Kiel University) : “What have the Romans ever done for ... equal economic opportunities?”

Trade
Illustration: Fine ware trade of balance and connections in period C (51-100 CE) by Katharina Zerzeropulos

The Roman economic landscape has been a subject of intense debate in Roman archaeology and history, primarily drawing insights from literary and qualitative sources. Archaeological studies often focused on prestigious goods or specific sites and regions, lacking comprehensive, well-dated quantification of everyday material culture.

To address this gap, an examination of pottery distribution patterns across the entire Mediterranean during the late Republic and early Empire offers a means to discern economic trends, imbalances, and preferences. This approach enables the calculation of modern measures like balances of trade, providing clear insights into which regions benefited from the production and exchange of fine wares and amphorae-borne food products in the Roman Empire. The diverse patterns exhibited by these materials throughout the investigated period indicate varying economic focuses for different regions.

Beyond revealing the primary products crucial to each region, this analysis sheds light on economic performance and potential wealth values. By integrating this approach with idealized pattern distributions created by Agent-Based Models and based on factors such as transport and transaction costs, protectionist and imperialistic policies, and network structures, we can assess whether the distribution of pottery in the Roman Empire was influenced by deliberate economic policy-making or simpler factors.

Inequalities play a significant role in these considerations, as policies stemming from an overarching structure, such as the state, may either promote, disadvantage, or equalize the production and exchange among regions in the Empire. Multiple models, exploring how trade parameters acted in unison, will be presented. These models, informed by historical sources, allow for initial conclusions regarding how the Roman Empire either facilitated or impeded economic opportunities for participants in the Mediterranean exchange network.

Dr. Tim Kerig

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Palaeoecological Colloquium (POEC)

Jan 18, 2024 from 02:15 PM to 03:45 PM

Leibnizstraße 3, R. 123

Dragana Filipovič, Giacomo Bilotti: "Reconstruction the size of household and the rate of cereal production and consumption for the Late Neolithic Archsum"

Wiebke Kirleis

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Biweekly Colloquium: "Climate and human induced changes to floristic diversity in Europe since the last ice age”

Jan 22, 2024 from 04:15 PM to 05:45 PM

Olshausenstraße 40, R. 13

Thomas Giesecke - Utrecht University

"Climate and human induced changes to floristic diversity in Europe since the last ice age”
 

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ROOTS Seminar Series with Anna-Theres Andersen

Jan 23, 2024 from 12:15 PM to 01:15 PM

OS80a - conference room

ROOTS Seminar Series with Anna-Theres Andersen

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PhD Teaching

Jan 23, 2024 from 02:00 PM to 04:00 PM

Leibnizstraße 3, R. 123

organization: Stefania Fiori and Katharina Zerzeropulos

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Archäologisches Kolloquium: "t.b.a"

Jan 29, 2024 from 06:30 PM to 08:30 PM

Hybride Veranstaltung (Johanna-Mestorf-Straße 2-6, Johanna-Mestorf-Hörsaal/Online)

t.b.a

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Palaeoecological Colloquium (POEC)

Feb 01, 2024 from 02:15 PM to 03:45 PM

Leibnizstraße 3, R. 123

Tim Schroedter: "Growth ring analysis on modern trees from Schleswig-Holstein as reference for the past."

Wiebke Kirleis

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Social Inequality Forum: “Exploring methods of quantifying grave wealth and inequality in the Czech Corded Ware culture”

Feb 06, 2024 from 10:00 AM

Leibnizstraße 3, R. 123

Mikkel Johansen Nørtoft (University of Copenhagen): “Exploring methods of quantifying grave wealth and inequality in the Czech Corded Ware culture”

Dr. Tim Kerig

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Archäologisches Kolloquium: "Mit großem und kleinem Aufwand: Die Bandbreite der Gefügeforschung und Dendrochronologie bei der Erforschung von Haus und Dachwerken sowie beweglichem Kulturgut"

Feb 12, 2024 from 06:30 PM to 08:30 PM

Hybride Veranstaltung (Johanna-Mestorf-Straße 2-6, Johanna-Mestorf-Hörsaal/Online)

Dr. Thomas Eißing (Bamberg)Mit großem und kleinem Aufwand: Die Bandbreite der Gefügeforschung und Dendrochronologie bei der Erforschung von Haus und Dachwerken sowie beweglichem Kulturgut

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Social Inequality Forum: “From Images to Signs: Understanding the Process of Script Formation in the First European Writing”

Feb 13, 2024 from 10:00 AM

Leibnizstraße 3, R. 123

Andrea Santamaria (ROOTS of Inequalities, Kiel University): “From Images to Signs: Understanding the Process of Script Formation in the First European Writing”

Santamaria

This contribution aims at reassessing the emergence of writing in Europe by investigating the process leading to standardizing a set of visual symbols into a system of script signs. The earliest traces of writing in Europe are to be found on the island of Crete and date back to the end of the Early Bronze Age (2200-2100 BCE ca.). They are represented by a sequence of 5 signs engraved on stone and bone seals, known as the ‘Archanes formula’. This formula likely points to an ongoing formation of the script graphic inventory, which, starting from the central period of the Middle Bronze Age (1800-1700 BCE ca.), features on two still undeciphered writing systems, i.e. the Cretan Hieroglyphic and the Linear A. Although sharing more than one half of the signs, these two scripts exhibit significant differences which point to divergent development paths.


Here, I address the way in which the Hieroglyphic template took shape and which actors could have been involved into this process. To do this, I searched for possible forerunners of Hieroglyphic signs among the earlier iconography, namely that spanning from the beginning of the Early Bronze Age to the beginning of the Middle Bronze Age (3100-1900 BCE ca.). It has been recently demonstrated that the Cretan Hieroglyphic did not (completely) stem from the adaptation of a foreign inventory (Ferrara, Montecchi & Valério 2021). Accordingly, they should have chiefly build upon a local iconographic tradition. Not coincidentally, the glyptic, unlike other more ‘conservative’ mediums like pottery and jewelry, serves as the primary repository for these images, showcasing frequent innovations in both stylistic and iconographic aspects. The results of my scrutiny can be summarized as follows:

 

1) The core signary of Cretan Hieroglyphic is already at home in the earlier iconographic tradition. Almost all the signs for which a syllabographic value can be posited show a clear connection with symbols attested on seals dating to the Early Bronze Age. Exceptions can be clarified by attributing them to either the adoption of iconography originating from another local source or, in very rare instances, by not entirely dismissing the possibility of influence from overseas.

2) One can identify a precise glyptic style (i.e., likely, a community of seal owners), consistently characterized by its own seal shapes, materials, and syntactic criteria, which is responsible for the inception of writing between the Early Bronze Age II and the Early Bronze Age III. The demonstration of this is threefold. First, this tradition attests the absolute majority (59%) of forerunners of Hieroglyphic signs for the first time. Second, the stylistic criteria in vogue in this tradition find correspondences during the Middle Bronze Age II, coinciding with the emergence of Cretan Hieroglyphic, while the other earlier glyptic traditions were abandoned. Third, seals bearing the ‘Archanes formula’ are all akin to this tradition.    

Bibliography:

  • Evans, Sir Arthur. 1901. Scripta Minoa. Oxford.
  • Decorte, Roeland P.J.-E. 2018. The Origins of Bronze Age Aegean Writing: Linear A, Cretan Hieroglyphic and a New Proposed Pathway of Script Formation. In: Ferrara, S. / Valério, M. (eds.), Paths into Script Formation in the Ancient Mediterranean (= SMEA Suppl. 1). Rome, 13-49.
  • Ferrara, Silvia / Montecchi, Barbara / Valério Miguel F.G. 2021. The Making of a Script: Cretan Hieroglyphic and the Quest for its Origins’. BASOR 386: 1-22.
  • Santamaria, Andrea. 2023. From Images to Signs: Cretan Hieroglyphic and Linear A in Context. PhD dissertation, University of Bologna
  • Sbonias, Kostas. 2012. Regional elite-groups and the production and consumption of seals in the Prepalatial period: a case-study of the Asterousia region. In: Schoep, I. / Tomkins, P. / Driessen, J. (eds), Back to the Beginning: Reassessing Social and Political Complexity on Crete during the Early and Middle Bronze Age. Oxford, 236-372.
  • Schoep, Ilse. 2020. The Development of Writing on Crete in EM III-MM IIB (ca 2200-1750/00 B.C.). In: Davis, B. / Laffineur, R. (eds.), Νεώτερος: Studies in Bronze Age Aegean Art and Archaeology in Honor of Professor John G. Younger on the Occasion of His Retirement (= Aegaeum 44). Leuven-Liège, 43-53.

 

Dr. Tim Kerig

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ROOTS Seminar Series with Eva Stukenbrock

Feb 13, 2024 from 12:15 PM to 01:15 PM

OS80a - conference room

ROOTS Seminar Series with Eva Stukenbrock.

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Social Inequality Forum: “Inequality in the urban landscape: a model for validating residential space in a pre-Industrial city”

Mar 12, 2024 from 10:00 AM

Leibnizstraße 3, R. 123

Maria Legut-Pintal (University of Wrocław): “Inequality in the urban landscape: a model for validating residential space in a pre-Industrial city”

Dr. Tim Kerig

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